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Humanism — a history of the hijacked Credo of our species Jul 3rd, By admin Category: Term freely applied to a variety of beliefs, methods, and philosophies that place central emphasis on the human realm.
Most frequently, however, the term is used with reference to a system of education and mode of inquiry that developed in northern Italy during the 13th and 14th centuries and later spread through continental Europe and England.
But humanism sought its own philosophical bases in far earlier times and, moreover, continued to exert some of its power long after the end of the Renaissance. Renaissance humanism in all its forms defined itself in its straining toward this ideal. Humanitas meant the development of human virtue, in all its forms, to its fullest extent.
Just as action without insight was held to be aimless and barbaric, insight without action was rejected as barren and imperfect. Humanitas called for a fine balance of action and contemplation, a balance born not of compromise but of complementarity.
The goal of such fulfilled and balanced virtue was political, in the broadest sense of the word. The purview of Renaissance humanism included not only the education of the young but also the guidance of adults including rulers via philosophical poetry and strategic rhetoric.
It included not only realistic social criticism but also utopian hypotheses, not only painstaking reassessments of history but also bold reshapings of the future.
Humanism had an evangelical dimension: Greek and Roman thought, available in a flood of rediscovered or newly translated manuscripts, provided humanism with much of its basic structure and method. Compared with the typical productions of medieval Christianity, these pagan works had a fresh, radical, almost avant-garde tonality.
Indeed, recovering the classics was to humanism tantamount to recovering reality. Classical philosophy, rhetoric, and history were seen as models of proper method—efforts to come to terms, systematically and without preconceptions of any kind, with perceived experience.
Moreover, Classical thought considered ethics qua ethics, politics qua politics: Classical virtue, in examples of which the literature abounded, was not an abstract essence but a quality that could be tested in the forum or on the battlefield. Finally, classical literature was rich in eloquence.
In particular since humanists were normally better at Latin than they were at GreekCicero was considered to be the pattern of refined and copious discourse.
In eloquence humanists found far more than an exclusively aesthetic quality. As an effective means of moving leaders or fellow citizens toward one political course or another, eloquence was akin to pure power. Humanists cultivated rhetoric, consequently, as the medium through which all other virtues could be communicated and fulfilled.
Of these excepting the historical movement described above there are three basic types: Accepting the notion that Renaissance humanism was simply a return to the Classics, some historians and philologists have reasoned that Classical revivals occurring anywhere in history should be called humanistic.
Thus, it is customary to refer to scholars in these fields as humanists and to their activities as humanistic. Humanism and related terms are frequently applied to modern doctrines and techniques that are based on the centrality of human experience.
Not only is such a large assortment of definitions confusing, but the definitions themselves are often redundant or impertinent.
To say that professors in the many disciplines known as the humanities are humanists is to compound vagueness with vagueness, for these disciplines have long since ceased to have or even aspire to a common rationale.
For obvious reasons, however, it is confusing to apply this word to Classical literature.
Basic principles and attitudes Underlying the early expressions of humanism were principles and attitudes that gave the movement a unique character and would shape its future development.The most notable feature of Bacon’s essay is his aphoristic style.
Aphorisms are straightforward statements that state a truth. Bacon in his essays writes in an aphoristic style making general statements. Bacon’s Style. In fact, the secret of Bacon’s style strength lies in its brevity. Virtually no writer, ancient or modern, has managed to compress so much in so little meaning compass, various tests, such as “studies and negotiations” – are marvels of condensation Perhaps the most.
The history of the term humanism is complex but enlightening. It was first employed (as humanismus) by 19th-century German scholars to designate the Renaissance emphasis on classical studies in rutadeltambor.com studies were pursued and endorsed by educators known, as early as the late 15th century, as umanisti—that is, professors or students of Classical literature.
Francis Bacon: Essays, J.M. Dent and Sons, London, (Introduction by Biographical Note In , at the age of forty-five he married Alice Barnham, the daughter of a London style and systematic plan of Bacon's Essays were intended to fulfil a specific didactic. Francis Bacon, () is the most influential and resourceful English writer of his time.
He very expertly uses different types of literary devices like paradox, aphorism, climax in his essays. Of Marriage and Single Life by Francis Bacon HE that hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune; for they are impediments to great enterprises, either of virtue or mischief.