Subsequent amendments have broadened its scope. The law provides a locally initiated mechanism for creating agricultural districts. Forming agricultural districts is intended to counteract the impact that nonfarm development can have upon the continuation of farm businesses. The Agricultural Districts Law allows reduced property tax bills for land in agricultural production by limiting the property tax assessment of such land to its prescribed agricultural assessment value.
A typical cattle town lay at the junction of railroad and livestock trail. It provided facilities for the reception of herds driven up from the south, their sale, and their transportation to urban meatpackers, to midwestern cattle feeders, or to the ranchers of the Central and Northern Plains.
While their principal commodity was cattle, horses destined for ranch use provided an important secondary commerce. Although Ogallala, Nebraska, was also a noted cattle town, the most famous were those of post—Civil War Kansas, each served by a trail from Texas.
|History of Settlement and Migration||You Can Fool the People One of the questions always asked by the beginning student of America's political assassinations is, "How is it possible that all of this could be happening in our country without our knowing about it? In fact, some published articles show that the entire truth about Watergate has yet to be revealed.|
|New Jersey geography-related lists||The Texas cowboy, along with the Texas cowman, was an evolvement from and a blend of the riding, shooting, frontier-formed southerner, the Mexican-Indian horseback worker with livestock the vaqueroand the Spanish open-range rancher.|
|Agricultural assessment program: overview||To view it, click here.|
The first was Abilene, organized as a market for Texas stock in It flourished until farmers overran its outlying ranges, ending its access to the trail. Ellsworth and Wichita then assumed roles as major cattle towns. From through these two—urged on by rival railroads—competed for the trade.
Ultimately, rural settlement closed them both. Dodge City became a cattle town in A severe drought, temporarily retarding the advance of the agricultural frontier, extended its life as a Texas cattle market until Caldwell flourished from through Kansas finally closed its borders to direct importation of Texas cattle, ending the careers of both Dodge and Caldwell.
Local politics at the cattle towns tended to center on conflict between critics and defenders of the cattle trade. Critics consisted of two groups. Farmers feared trampled crops and the fatal effects of "Texas fever" on domestic livestock. Many townspeople opposed the saloons, professional gambling, and prostitution apparently required by cattlemen and off-duty cowboys.
Businessmen invariably closed ranks against outlying farmers but tended to factionalize on moral reform. Three political positions emerged. Traditionalists fond of a lingering frontier ambience resisted all change. Moderate reformers, mainly leading business and professional men, favored ameliorative measures: Finally, there were the radical reformers, chiefly evangelicals who grew increasingly active after Kansas adopted liquor prohibition in With the saloons of Dodge and Caldwell now egregiously illegal, local opponents of all social immorality rallied under the antiliquor banner.
Although women reportedly comprised the hard core of antiliquor crusaders, a male element eventually resorted to violence to achieve reform.
But the legendary street homicide associated with the cattle towns has been very much overdrawn by novelists, screenwriters, and journalists. Between andincluding justifiable killings by the police, only forty-five adults died violently at the five major Kansas cattle towns, an average of 1.
Nobody died in a Hollywood-style duel. Fewer than a third of the victims returned fire; a number were not even armed.
Four deaths were accidental shootings. Famous "bad men" the term "gunfighter" had not yet been innovated accounted for few deaths. John Wesley Hardin killed a man snoring too loudly in an adjoining hotel room; Wyatt Earp or another policemen killed a carousing cowboy; Bat Masterson dispatched the murderer of his brother; Wild Bill Hickok killed two men, one a security guard, by mistake.
But potential violence always presented something of a quandary for cattle town elites. Business leaders felt it necessary to suppress the disorder to which drunken and high-spirited visitors were prone but to do so without causing Texas drovers to take their business elsewhere.
Only the end of cattle trading in each town resolved this dilemma.
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