What is APA style? Like all documentation styles, APA style provides a standard system for giving credit to others for their contribution to your work.
Fair-Use Policy Different disciplines use their own systems to set out information about sources. Here are samples of common systems, showing the kinds of information needed and some details of punctuation, typeface, and indentation.
The examples also demonstrate ways of introducing citations and commenting on sources. For more detailed advice, consult the manuals mentioned below with each system. The appearance of the examples may be altered by your browser. If in doubt about matters such as line spacing or indentation, check the manuals mentioned.
Note also that many of the examples cited are fictional. Traditional Endnotes or Footnotes with Superscript Numbers humanities Some humanities and science disciplines use systems with small raised numbers matching footnotes or endnotes, followed by a bibliography, because they do not interrupt the flow of the text.
Though the format appears troublesome, your word processor can create the notes automatically for you: Readers usually prefer footnotes. Established scholars also use notes for digressions on tangential points, but in student work that might seem pretentious. Our examples use superscript note numbers rather than regular-font numbers for the notes; either is acceptable.
Here are some further remarks on particularities of this system: If you are using two books by the same author, include a shortened form of the book title to clarify which book you mean.
Notes are indented like paragraphs in the essay indent the first line, not the subsequent ones.
Notes should be single-spaced, but with a blank line between notes. Bibliography entries are given in hanging-indent form first line flush with the left margin, subsequent lines indented and are also single-spaced with a blank line between entries. In listing a webpage as a source, include the date you read the page as well as the URL.
That information lets your reader judge whether he or she is seeing the same version of the webpage that you did. See also the section on Electronic Sources.
In this system, you still use parentheses within your prose to give page or line numbers for texts you refer to repeatedly e. For more detailed advice on formatting in this style, consult the Notes-Bibliography chapters of the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition Z C45 ; this authoritative reference work on all matters related to editing is now available online in full to U of T students and faculty.
Norton, Subsequent parenthetical citations will refer to this edition. University of Toronto Press, Shaw, Oxford University Press, University of Toronto Press, Ritual and Drama in the Elizabethan Age. Oxford University Press, In The Norton Introduction to Literature, 12th ed.
Parenthetical Author-Page References humanities Used largely in the humanities, the MLA citation format uses parenthetical in-text citations of author and page, with all sources itemized in the Works Cited.
In-text citations remain largely unaffected, but references in the Works Cited section have changed significantly. Author, Title of Source.
The container is the larger whole in which the work appears. It can be a journal or website or anthology or database. Some sources may be nested in more than one container—e. For each container, provide only those core elements that apply to your source.
Note that location refers to where in a container your reader can find your source. For an article in a journal, the location is the page range of the article; for a website, it is the URL for the relevant webpage.
Here are a few of the other changes, large and small, that MLA has introduced in the eighth edition: It no longer insists that there is one correct way of constructing a reference.
Though it does supply general guidelines and some specific formatting rules, it asks you to consider relevance to your reader in deciding which elements to include in your reference.In the in-text citation, use a shortened (but clear) version of the title in either a signal phrase or in parentheses, using correct formatting as required for that source type (an “Article Title” would be quoted while a Book Title would be italicized).
Scientific Style and Format presents three systems for referring to references (also known as citations) within the text of a journal article, book, or other scientific publication: 1) citation–sequence; 2) name–year; and 3) citation–name.
These abbreviated references are called in-text references. Nov 05, · How to Cite Sources. In this Article: Ask your instructor or supervisor which style to use for your project.
The most common styles used in academic writing are the Modern Language Association (MLA), If it is the same book, write "A and B [LastName], ". If it is a different book, it would not matter as long as it is written in the Views: M.
The basic APA reference page formatting style is to give the name of the author, the date of publication, the title of the book or article cited and the publisher's information.
This basic information is . The citation system and format you use will be determined by the citation style you choose.
Ask your instructor which style should be used, and if there are other special formatting instructions you . Story Terrace Helps you Write Your Life Story. Contact Story Terrace Today!Custom-Made Book · Professional Editing · A Unique Gift · The Book of a Lifetime.